No Former Specific.—Under the former methods of treatment there was no remedy in the pharmacopoeia which could be relied upon as a specific for syphilis, although there were many that had a very beneficial influence in aiding the disappearance of the symptoms. It was then, indeed, a question whether the disease could ever be effectually cured.

Mercury Not Relied On.—In former times it was thought that in mercury we possessed a specific against the disease, and when all sores were looked upon as syphilitic, and mercury was administered, a large proportion of supposed cures were recorded. In our modern times, however, the supposed success of the mercurial plan is not recognized.

The New Specific.—Recent investigation and research have brought to light a remedy called "Succus Alterans," which is as much a specific for syphilis and blood-poisoning as quinine is for intermittent fever. Mercury and the iodides produce injurious effects if long continued, and should be avoided. Patients who have been treated by the old plan improve rapidly after taking succus alterans. In some patients an itching is produced; in others an eruption on portions of the body or limbs; in a few, watery blisters in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet which require no particular attention except to cleanse them with water, adding a few drops of carbolic acid.

Comparison of Treatments.—The- new treatment is a certain antidote to blood-poison, and increases the number of red corpuscles in poor blood, while mercury and the iodides produce a condition of the system infinitely worse than the disease it is sought to cure.

Effect of the New Treatment.—The effect of succus alterans as a constitutional remedy rests, unquestionably, in its power of eliminating specific poison from the blood, and in its tonic power, increasing the proportion of red corpuscles in impoverished blood, thus enabling the system to throw off disease. The dose of this remedy is one teaspoonful four times a day.


Considerable success has been reported from the use as an alterative of the black oxide of mercury in doses of one-half grain daily. It is frequently used in fumigation with marked success, the patient being placed, covered with undergarments, in a vapor bath and exposed for fifteen or twenty minutes to the vapors arising from two drachms of the oxide put upon heated iron within the bath.

Auxiliary Treatment 1.—The different vegetable decoctions, of which sarsaparilla takes the lead, assist digestion, promote the action of the skin, encourage the functional activity of the kidneys and please the patient. They may be adjuncts in certain cases, but they have not merited by their action any right to the term curative in its narrowest sense, since they do not demonstrably postpone relapses or shorten the duration of existing symptoms any more than other hygienic or tonic means.

Auxiliary Treatment 2.—The hygienic treatment of syphilis includes all the ordinary laws of health. Regularity of habits, especially those of eating and sleeping and those involved in the performance of intestinal functions, is all important. No deviation need be made from ordinary diet. Excesses of any kind are bad, especially excesses in strong drink, in work, in venery. The function of the skin should receive attention through scrupulous cleanliness. Warm baths are more cleanly and relaxing to the skin than cold. Catching cold should be avoided. It is apt to induce and prolong mucous and ulcerative patches about the mouth, nose and throat. Experience has taught that tobacco in all forms, and even highly-seasoned food, is certainly injurious in irritating and keeping up an outcrop of mucous patches. Air, exercise and light, essentially necessary to all animal well-being, are particularly so in the case of obstinate or chronic disease. Change of air in some of those cases is essential to the success of treatment.

Auxiliary Treatment 3.—In the same category with hygiene belongs all tonic and supportive medication. Iron quinine, the vegetable bitters, and so forth, all vindicate their claims in the treatment. There are, however, certain phases of syphilitic cachexia over which no tonics act with the same effect as minute doses of the black oxide of mercury, sometimes preferably combined with iron.



Treatment by Cystogen.—There are few who cannot recall the days of balsam copaiba and zinc injections. What a change in the treatment of disease—the antiseptic or germicidal treatment of the modern day! In the treatment of any disease of the genito-urinary tract the urine should be rendered sterile. Experiments made with cystogen prove conclusively its value as a genito-urinary germicide, and the brilliant results obtained from its use places it foremost among the remedies of the genito-urinary specialist. In gonorrhea, acute and chronic, it serves to restrict the area of infection and prevent reinfection. Obstinate cases that have resisted other treatments should be placed on cystogen, in five-grain doses every three or four hours. It will clear up the urine without perverting its chemical reaction. The trouble with agents which make the urine alkaline is that they are incompatible with the gastric juice and must be given in doses large enough to more than neutralize the acid of the stomach. Cystogen preserves the acidity of the gastric juice and produces an antiseptic irrigating fluid of the urine without interfering with the digestion or irritating the kidneys.

The Sanmetto Treatment.—We have also another agent possessing wonderful specific influence over the urinary organs when there is irritation or inflammation. It is called sanmetto, and is a combination of sandal wood and saw palmetto.. It acts as a great vitalizer, increasing the strength of the reproductive organs, hastening their action, promoting their secreting power and increasing their size. The usual dose is a teaspoonful four times a day.

It is generally recognized by the profession that there is no disease which is so common and presents as many dangers to the human race at large as gonorrhea. The greatest danger lies in the fact that medical men are apt to be careless about the treatment. No man can pronounce his patient well and be sure that his urethra is free from the specific micro-organism unless he is able to make a thorough bacteriological examination of the patient's urine and of any discharge which may issue from his genito-urinary organs. The great source of general infection is the man who is told that he is "over his dose" because his discharge is apparently checked and he is able to urinate without using bad language at every dripple of urine. He is sent away with a host of virulent microorganisms lying extant in his urethra.

Track of Gonorrhea.—The urethral inflammation commences at the meatus and travels slowly backward. There is no ulceration. The disease tends to limit itself and to become localized at the bulb, where the disease runs its course. Instead of getting well we have gleet, in which there is a certain amount of sticky fluid, often only a drop at the meatus in the morning continues to be secreted after gonorrhea, from altered patches of the urethra, or coming from the stretched and congested membrane behind a stricture. Gleet, then, is a symptom of two structural lesions, and signifies that there are patches of congestion in the canal, covered or not by granulations, or that stricture exists, and that the discharge comes from behind it. When an individual with a gleet is found to be gouty it is particularly advisable to enforce strict urethral hygiene.

Gonorrheal Complications.—Of the complications of gonorrhea we may have inflammatory phymosis, chordee, retention of urine and hemorrhage. The idea of aborting gonorrhea by the internal use of balsams has been abandoned. By abortive treatment is now understood the injection of any irritating soluble substance into the urethra for the purpose of inflaming the canal. Of these substances is nitrate of silver, of the strength of half a grain to one ounce of water, the injection being carefully repeated every two or three hours until a trace of blood is seen in the discharges. Then all treatment must cease. The syringe used in the abortive treatment should never hold more than two drachms, and the fluid injected must be brought well into contact with every portion of the first inch and a half of the urethra.

In true gonorrhea the abortive treatment will not avail after the disease is more than forty-eight hours old.

Indian Hemp Remedy.—We then rely upon the Indian hemp, or cannabis indica, in doses of one-third to half a grain three or four times a day. It acts beneficially by passing off in the urine and cleaning out the urethra. In those complications of gonorrhea in which we have to cease injections on account of cystitis, prostatitis, and so forth, this drug is greatly to be recommended. We have repeatedly observed cases of acute catarrh of the bladder, with bloody urine, improve considerably, and the urine become clear after a few doses of the drug. In old cases of cystitis and prostatitis it was also beneficial and always acted favorably and cleared up the urine. It has also been used with success in inflammation of the neck of the bladder, suppurative nephritis or kidney disease, chronic catarrh of the bladder, vesical catarrh of old age, complications of Bright's disease, bloody urine and specific and non-specific urethritis.

In accordance with the results obtained it should be given in the first stages of gonorrhea to spare the patient the vexation of a prolonged discharge and the urinal scaldings, which, when connected with urethral catarrh and slight cystitis, increasing the frequent desire to pass water, amount to positive torture.

Bearing this in mind, we lay down the rule, that as soon as the disease has declared itself, without waiting for the diminution of the inflammation, we commence by giving one-third grain of cannabis indica, four times a day, and after second day increased to one-half grain. Toward the fourth day, when the discharge has become serous and reduced, the dose should be gradually diminished.

In cases of simple nephritis, stricture of the urethra, acute cystitis, albuminuria, with puffiness in the face and limbs; catarrhal affections of the bladder and of the urinary organs, the dose is one-half grain two or three times a day until every trace of mucus has disappeared from the urine, which then becomes quite clear and limpid.


Nicotine.—There is no deadlier poison in nature than Nicotine. A drop or two of nicotine is sufficient to cause death. Like all poisons it is highly stimulating for the instant, soon to be followed by its death-like effects. It is the peculiar poison which tobacco in any and all of its forms yields. The tobacco chewer, snuff taker, cigar smoker, and cigarette fiend, no matter what his or her reason be for indulgence in the weed, is simply administering poison to the vitals.

Excuse for the Habit.—To be sure the administration of poison to oneself through the agency of the plug, cigar, cigarette or snuff is not immediately dangerous. Many excuse such unwise administration on the plea that tobacco calms their nerves and conduces to sleep and comfort. Others say it is a sedative that conduces to thought. It is generally supplied to soldiers on the theory that it keeps them contented in camp, enables them to better withstand the fatigue of long marches, and in a limited sense supplies the lack of food. But most, if not all, of these claims are imaginary. They are made, as a rule, by slaves of the habit, and as a justification of their folly.

Tobacco Facts.—The boy or girl who uses tobacco before reaching maturity is sure to wreck the nervous system and take a long step toward idiocy or insanity. Perfect, clean, energetic and acceptable manhood or womanhood is impossible for a youthful tobacco poisoner. No matter how slowly the administration of the poison may be, it is relatively quicker in its action than upon older people, because young nerves are the more tender and sensitive, more easily affected. The business world, as well as polite society, is fast making the use of tobacco, as of alcohol, a test of qualification in employment. As between the user and non-user of tobacco the latter is preferred every time. The youth who uses tobacco before maturity is his own greatest enemy, and readily ranks as a crass fool.

Adult Tobacco Users.—It is to be doubted whether any sane adult ever deliberately learned the tobacco habit. They either imitate others, lest they appear odd, or the habit has crept insidiously on them. Again it is to be doubted whether a sane man exists who does not deprecate the habit and wish he were rid of it, and this deprecation exists in spite of the fact that he is ready with excuses for indulging the habit. In this respect tobacco users are open to the charge of inconsistency.

The Force of Habit.—Habit is a hard master, a veritable tyrant. It gloats in its triumphs and laughs while its slave writhes. So tyrannical and brutal is it that, as in the case of alcohol, it causes such degeneracy of tissues and organs as to take rank with actual disease, that of alcoholism. This is in some sense true of the tobacco habit. The difficulty of ridding oneself of it leads to the belief that it really weakens the will power and those forces which contribute to moral self-control.

Uselessness of the Habit.—No non-user of tobacco ever felt the worse or expressed regret over his abstentation. No user of tobacco ever denied that the habit is

1st. A filthy one, in that it begets frequent spitting of stained saliva by chewers, sickening smoke odors by smokers, and discharge of discolored mucous by snuffers. Add to this the disgustingly odorous smoke of the cigarette-fiend, and then wonder what worse in the way of filth can be realized.

2d. No matter what the natural constitution or the excuse, the habit is a dangerous one. It grows by what it feeds upon, and leads to gradual and insidious wreckage of the finer sensibilities and active nerve forces.

3d. It is an expensive habit, often entailing poverty, and always diminishing the recompense of labor. In the families of those who earn meagre support its expensiveness is almost the equivalent of robbery of wife and children. Destitution lies in the wake of tobacco almost as surely as in that of alcohol.

4th. It is an inconvenient habit and very often interferes with work, however much some may claim that it increases the ability to work.

Is There a Cure?—Yes. But not outside of the man's self. To introduce tobacco substitutes is not to cure, for very often the whole tobacco habit consists in the mere presence of a quid in the mouth or a cigar in the mouth. To keep the nervous system up to the tobacco tone by means of drugs would be to introduce into the system something which might lead to worse results than nicotine poison. It is all with the man. He should bring his mightiest will-power to bear upon the habit. He should never forget all the inconveniences and harmful results of indulgence. Bear them in mind; magnify them, if possible. Shape up every fibre to combat the situation. Resolve to be a free man. Persevere in the resolve. Weaken at no point of conflict nor at any time. Two or three weeks of abstentation will brace the will-power. It will feel encouraged by triumph, will grow stronger and stronger, and finally rejoice in entire mastery of the habit.


Dr. S. A. Knoph, a celebrated New York specialist on consumption, who took the 1899 prize for a treatise on the disease, regards it as curable, and has the following to say of it:

Havoc of Consumption.—When it is considered that in the United States alone there are 100,000 deaths a year due to this disease it will be seen how important is any effort made to stamp it out.

Causes.—Pulmonary consumption or tuberculosis of the lungs is a chronic disease caused by the presence of the tubercle bacillus or germ of consumption in the lung. This little parasite soon destroys the lung substance through ulcerative processes, but gives off at the same time certain poisonous substances called toxins which give rise to various and often serious symptoms.

The Germs.—The tubercle bacillus appears in the form of minute slender rods. It may be taken into the system in three ways—breathed into the lungs, eaten with affected food or taken into the blood through a wound in the skin.

Spreading the Germs.—The greatest factor in the distribution of these germs does not make very pleasant reading, but it is so important that it cannot be omitted. The saliva of the consumptive is full of the germ. Every time he expectorates he distributes these germs; they dry and are pulverized and are taken up in the form of dust to be breathed into the lungs of other persons. For this reason it is most important in combating consumption to be extremely careful of cuspidors in public places; they should always be partly filled with water in order to prevent the germs from drying and should be thoroughly cleansed and fumigated.

Danger from Saliva.—Small particles of saliva containing bacilli are thrown out by the consumptive during dry cough, loud speaking or sneezing. There is danger from this source of infection only when one remains a considerable length of time very near the tuberculous patient. At a distance of three or four feet the danger practically ceases. But on falling to the floor these bacilla dry and are taken up with the dust; therefore, the room of a consumptive should never have any fixed carpet and even the wooden floor should never be swept with a broom, but should be frequently wiped up with a wet cloth or with crude oil.

Hereditary Consumption.—Even the hereditary disposition to consumption can be overcome if proper methods are taken. A separate bed should be provided for the child of a consumptive mother, and there should be as much exposure to warm air as possible. It is a good plan to let the little one run about naked, or with only a little shirt on, for a while every day in a warm sunny room; a bare wooden floor or a square of closely-woven matting that can be kept scrupulously clean is much to be preferred to dust-collecting carpet. From the tenth to the twelfth month one should accustom the child gradually to cold baths.

Exercise.—As soon as the intelligence of the grown child will permit it should be taught to take the following breathing exercises, which the child should learn to love as the average boy or girl loves general gymnastics: In front of the open window, or out of doors, assume the position of the military "attention," heels together, body erect, and hands on the sides, with the mouth closed take a deep inspiration, and while doing so raise the arms to a horizontal position; remain thus holding the air inhaled for about three seconds, and while exhaling (breathing out) bring the arms to the original position. This act of exhalation, or expiration, should be a little more rapid than the act of inspiration.

Exercise II.—When the first is thoroughly mastered and has been practiced for several days one may begin with the second exercise, which is like the first, except that the upward movement of the arms is continued until the hands meet over the head.

Exercise III.—The third breathing or respiratory exercise, which requires more strength and endurance, should not be undertaken until the first two have been practiced regularly several times a day for a few weeks and until an evident improvement in breathing and general well-being has been observed.

Take the same military position of "attention" and then stretch the arms out as in the act of swimming, the backs of the hands touching each other. During the inspiration move the arms outward until they finally meet behind the back. Remain in this position a few seconds, retain the air, and during exhalation bring the arms forward again. This somewhat difficult exercise can be facilitated and be made more effective by rising on the toes during the act of inhalation and descending during the act of expiration.

Further Exercise.—Of course, when out of doors one cannot always take these exercises with the movement of the arms without attracting attention; under such conditions raise the shoulders, making a rotary backward movement during the act of inhaling; remain in this position, holding the breath for a few seconds, and then exhale while moving the shoulders forward and downward, assuming again the normal position. This exercise can be easily taken while walking, sitting or riding in the open air.

Stooping Shoulders.—Young boys and girls, and especially those who are predisposed to consumption, often acquire a habit of stooping. To overcome this the following exercise is to be recommended: The child makes his best effort to stand upright, places his hands en his hips with the thumbs front, and then bends slowly backward as far as he can during the act of inhaling. He remains in this position a few seconds, while holding the breath, and then rises again somewhat more rapidly during the act of exhalation.

Rules for Breathing Exercise.—The following general rule concerning breathing exercises should always be remembered: Commence with the easier exercises and do not begin with more difficult ones until the former are completely mastered. Take from six to nine deep respiratory exercises, either of one kind or the other, every half hour, and continue this practice until deep breathing has become a natural habit. These exercises should always be taken in an atmosphere as fresh and as free from dust as possible. Never take these exercises when tired, and never continue so long as to become tired.

To Avoid Mouth-Breathing.—Mouth-breathing in children and sometimes in adults is often caused by certain growths in the throat (adenoid vegetation), by enlarged tonsils, or by growths in the nose (polypi, etc.). The removal of these obstructions by surgical aid is perhaps the only rational method to assure natural breathing. Incidentally, we may be permitted to say that these operations are not at all dangerous; but by the presence of these vegetations in the throat (retropharynx) the hearing and the intellectual and bodily development of the child may become seriously impaired. The early removal of such growths should be earnestly recommended. The respiratory exercises above described are particularly useful for such children after operation, otherwise they might retain the habit of imperfect breathing, which they had acquired.

Among exercises which have a tendency to develop and strengthen lungs and throat we will also mention singing and reciting in the open air.

What Predisposes to Consumption.—A predisposition to consumption other than hereditary can be created or acquired.

1st.—By the intemperate use of alcoholic beverages, a dissipated life.

2d.—By certain diseases which weaken the constitution; for example, pneumonia, typhoid fever, small-pox, measles, whooping-cough, influenza, and so forth.

3d.—By certain occupations, trades and professions, such as printing, hat-making, tailoring, weaving and all occupations where the worker is much exposed to the inhalation of various kinds of dusts.

The hygiene of factories, work shops and dwellings is a most important factor in overcoming these dangers.

Combating Consumption.—The cleanliness of the body; the regularity of meals and reasonable hours of work will help combat the germs of tuberculosis. To be cheerful, to live a regular life, to eat plain but good food, to avoid all alcoholic beverages, to keep the system free from impurities, to keep the whole body clean, to sleep at least eight hours out of the twenty-four is the best way to remain well.

Danger from Cattle.—Tuberculosis in cattle and other animals is of the utmost importance, for from them man can get the germs and take them into his system.

Curability.—All who have made the disease a study have for years come to the conclusion that tuberculosis, especially in its pulmonary form, is not only a preventable disease but one which can in the majority of cases be completely and lastingly cured. It is certainly within the power of man, living in a civilized country, such as the United States, where so much intelligence, wealth, prosperity and philanthropy prevail, to combat tuberculosis as a disease of the masses most successfully.


In Twenty-Five Years.—At birth the average male infant weighs 7.5 pounds and is 20.6 inches long. The average man of 25 has a stature of 68.3 inches and a weight of 148 pounds. Thus in the twenty-five years the stature becomes about three and one-third and the weight about twenty times the corresponding measurements at birth.

First Year's Growth.—During the first year the boy gains in height 8.4 inches and in weight 13 pounds, or, expressed in percentage, the gain in height is 41 per cent. and in weight is 173 per cent. Not only are these percentages of annual increase never again even approximated in the growing period of the individual but the actual increase is never again reached in any one year.

Second Year's Growth.—During the second year of life the rate of change slackens rapidly, and while growth and development still proceed the processes go on at a very moderate rate compared with that of the first year.

First Year Dangers.—The first year of a child's life is the period of greatest internal activity, of greatest plasticity, of greatest adjustment to surroundings. Hence it is the year of greatest mortality.

First Year Mortality.—The mortality in this year of life, as shown by English statistics, is about 15 per cent.—a rate not again reached until the age of 80. In many cities infant mortality reaches a much higher figure. It is also important to note that much of the mortality of infancy occurs in the early part of the first year. Thus Julius Eross, who studied the statistics of sixteen large European cities, and whose study included over 1,400,000 children, found that 10 per cent. of the children born alive died within the first four weeks of life. The mortality of the first year of life is about double that of typhoid fever, so that it is no exaggeration to say that to be an infant under one year of age is twice as dangerous as to have typhoid fever, although the danger decreases with each week of life.

Second Year Mortality.—After the second year growth proceeds in a fairly even way until the age of about 11 or 12 years is reached, when an acceleration occurs lasting from three to five years.

Man's Growthy Period.—With the exception of the elephant man has a longer period of plasticity, or of development, than any other animal. Man's plastic period lasts twenty years. During its growing period the elephant has an enormous bulk to acquire and most of its growth processes must be directed to that end. Influences which would act strongly to differentiate the young elephant from its hereditary tendencies would necessarily tend to interfere with its acquirement of bulk and hence make is less liable to survive, which would prevent the establishment in the species of any variation so produced. The great reason, after all, why it has not evolved higher lies in the failure of the elephant's brain to develop, which is itself the result of the highly specialized structure of the animal.

Danger of Rapid Growth.—Rapid growth is antagonistic to permanence of environmental impressions and is inimical to the life of the individual, at least in the case of the human infant.

When the Individual is Safest.—The individual is safest when his development follows most closely the average or mean. There are many instances which illustrate this. Infants whose size and weight are much above the average for their age are generally anaemic and are notoriously difficult to nourish.

Defective livers.—Children who are horn with livers ill developed in function are the victims of many pathological processes, some of which cause merely suffering, others involve the future life and health of the individual, and still others threaten, and at times actually destroy, life.

Growing Too Fast.—The girl or boy who, at the age of 13 or 14, has a much greater acceleration of growth than normal puts so much energy into this process that excessive fatigue results, and if the ordinary vocations are continued the child is often permanently damaged. Growth sometimes occurs so rapidly that the heart cannot keep up with the increased work thrown upon it, becomes overworked and is damaged to the extent that it is neglected. The most striking illustrations of this truth are to be found in the cases of unusual precocity which from time to time have been noted.

Average Growth Best.—The average is best for the individual, and while advancement of the race demands deviation from the average no altruism yet evolved requires one to welcome or foster it.

Great Growth at Birth.—At birth there is a great range of the degree of growth and development of the several organs of the body. Those upon which the maintenance of life directly depends are necessarily developed quite highly and their nervous connections are well established. The heart is quite as capable at birth of performing its functions as it is at any later stage. Its subsequent change is principally one of growth. The lungs and kidneys are also highly developed at birth.

Poorly Developed Birth Organs.—The gastroenteric tract and its adjuncts, on the other hand, are not nearly so well developed. While the proper action of the stomach and bowels is quite an essential to the maintenance of life as is the proper action of the heart, their deficiency in development is met by the highly specialized food of the infant. The liver, the great chemical laboratory of the body, like the stomach and bowels, is incompletely developed functionally, and to a greater degree than these other organs. The same special condition of food which favors the gastroenteric tract also generally saves the liver and permits it to be competent to do the work thrown upon it.

Most Immature Birth Organs.—The most immature organ of all at birth, and the one in which the greatest changes are subsequently to occur, is the brain. Its weight at birth is about 12 to 13 troy ounces, which is about 12-1/2 per cent. of the whole body weight. At maturity, at the age of 20, it has acquired a weight of about 45 troy ounces in the male and about 37 troy ounces in the female, but at this age it constitutes in both sexes somewhat less than 2-1/2 per cent. of the whole body weight.

Brain Growth.—The growth of the brain is very rapid during the first year of life and much less in subsequent years, but by the seventh year it has attained fully 90 per cent. of its total future weight. While the processes of growth and development go on together, in the first seven years the brain change is preeminently that of growth and thereafter preeminently that of development. No organ of the body can be affected so much by proper training as the brain.


Rules Advised by General Wood.

Army medical officers are thoroughly satisfied with the reports of the experts in that department that the mosquito is the principal agent in the dissemination of yellow fever. Acting upon these reports Major-General Wood, commanding the Department of Cuba, has issued an order which means energetic war against this insect. The following is the order as sent out by him on the subject:

"The chief surgeon of the department having reported that it is now well established that malaria, yellow fever and filarial affection are transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes, the following precautions will, upon his recommendation, be taken for the protection of the troops against the bites of these insects:—

"1st. The universal use of mosquito bars in all barracks and especially in all hospitals, and also in field service when practicable.

"2d. The destruction of the larvae or young mosquitoes, commonly known as 'wiggletails,' or 'wigglers.' by the use of petroleum on the water where they breed.

"The mosquito does not fly far and seeks shelter when the wind blows; so it is usually the case that each community breeds its own supply of mosquitoes in water barrels, fire buckets, post holes, old cans, cesspools or undrained puddles.

"An application of one ounce of kerosene to each fifteen square feet of water, twice a month, will destroy not only all the young but the adult females who come to lay their eggs. The water in cisterns or tanks is not affected for drinking or washing purposes by this application if only it is drawn from below and not dipped out.

"For pools or puddles of a somewhat permanent character draining or filling up is the best remedy.

"The medical department will furnish oil for purpose above mentioned.

"Post commanders will carefully carry out these precautions."



How Regarded.—Some medical writers treat this worst of all youthful, and even adult, practices as a habit, others as a disease, still others as a crime. It is all three, dependent on ages, physical conditions and surroundings; but, beyond everything, is a crime against nature, punishable by consequences that are simply appalling.

When to Suspect.—Surprising artfulness and obstinacy are employed by young people in maintaining secrecy respecting crimes of this description. But a youth may be suspected, when, at the period of puberty, he seeks to remain in solitary places generally alone, more rarely with a particular comrade.

Terrible Effects on Conduct.—This vice soon renders him careless of his parents and the persons who have the care of him, as well as indifferent to the sports of his equals; he falls into a distaste for everything except the opportunity of indulgence; all his thoughts are directed to the parts at this period subject to irritation; sensibility, imagination and passion are inflamed; and the secretion of the reproductive liquid augmenting, withdraws a very precious portion from the blood.

Havoc on the Body.—The muscles of the youth consequently become soft; he is idle; his body becomes bent; his gait is sluggish, and he is scarcely able to support himself. The digestion becomes enfeebled; the breath, fetid; the intestines, inactive; the excrements, hardened in the rectum and producing additional irritation of the seminal conduits in its vicinity. The circulation being no longer free, the youth sighs often; the complexion is livid, and the skin, on the forehead especially, is studded with pimples.

Effects on the Face.—The corners of the mouth are lengthened; the nose becomes sharp; the sunken eyes, deprived of brilliance and enclosed in blue circles, are cast down; no look remains of gayety; the very aspect is criminal.

Ruinous to the Sensibilities.—General sensibility becomes excessive, producing tears without cause; perception is weakened, and memory almost destroyed; distraction or absence of mind renders the judgment unfit for any operation: the imagination gives birth only to fantasies and fears without grounds; the slightest allusion to the dominating passion produces motion of the muscles of the face, the flush of shame, or a state of despair; the desires become capricious, and envy rankles in the mind, or there ensues a total disgust.

Further Horrid Consequences.—The wretched being finishes by shunning the face of men and dreading the observation of women; his character is entirely corrupted, or his mind is totally stupified. Involuntary loss of the reproductive fluid at last takes place during the daily motions; and there ensues a total exhaustion, bringing on heaviness of the head, singing in the ears, and frequent faintings, or a sensation as if ants were running from the head down the back, together with pains, convulsive tremblings and partial paralysis.

Stunted Growth.—Long previous to these severe effects, the losses which have been described arrest the increase of stature, and stop the growth of all the organs, and the development of all the functions.

Incapacity to Procreate.—An incapability of ever giving life to strong and robust children, is another effect of these losses, which precedes the total ruin of the individual.

Duty of Instructors.—Intelligent instructors will know both how to divine the bad habits of their pupils, and how to avoid all excitement of them. Much attention has recently been paid to the nature of punishments. There are few of them that should not be avoided; but to punish a child by shutting him up alone in a room, is a sad error, if there be any reason to suspect him of bad habits.

Medical Remedies.—Medical remedies, astringents, sudorifics, and so forth, are weakening and injurious in other respects; and mechanical means directly applied to the organs are likely to draw the attention, and determine the blood, to the part whence it should be diverted.

Moral Treatment.—Moral means consist of good habits previous to puberty, the influence of fear and respect, and that of the nobler feelings predominating over the baser passions. This assuredly will be more easily accomplished in well-directed private education, than in public schools.

Informing the Victim.—When conviction of the existence of this habit is acquired, it becomes necessary to speak to the subject of it mildly and rationally respecting his injurious practice. There can be no danger in placing a book or article upon the habit in the hands of children whose conduct has given rise to suspicion.

Diet.—In such cases, exciting and superabundant food is highly injurious. The diet should be chiefly or altogether vegetable, and no vinous or spirituous drinks should be permitted. The latter are indeed, of themselves, quite sufficient to produce, at any time, the worst habits; and the parent who has suffered their use, has no right to complain either of precocious puberty, or of unnatural indulgences.

Value of Employment.—As it is well known that the almost unremitting employment of his muscles diverts the laborer from this vice, while shepherds, who watch their flocks in sequestered places, have been generally accused of it, it is evident that if, in youths, the superabundance of nervous power were carried off by exercise, they would be rendered more tranquil and more attentive to instruction, and would consequently make greater progress in knowledge.

The Vice Among Girls.—The vice which has now been described in boys, appears among girls, and produces similar symptoms. In general, the victims of this depravity are announced by their aspect. The roses fade from the cheeks, the face assumes an appearance of faintness and weakness; the skin becomes rough; the eyes lose their brightness, and a livid circle surrounds them; the lips become colorless, and all the features sink down, and become disordered.

Sad Results to the Organs.—If the depravity be not arrested, general disease and local affections of the organs of reproduction ensue—acrid leucorrhea, ulcerations of the vulvo-uterine canal, falling and various diseases of the matrix, abortions, and sometimes nymphomania and furor uterinus, terminate life amidst delirium and convulsions.

Duty of Mothers.—It is evident that the victims of this depravity demand the most active vigilance of mothers if they desire to preserve either the morals or the health of their daughters. It is evident, also, that the same practices are scarcely less injurious at a more advanced age, and they should be resisted by all the moral forces both victims and parents can bring to bear on the crime.


Diminish Work.—If one has been diligently pursuing any line of business, as he enters upon old age, let him simply diminish the number of hours of active work and intrust more to others, while he rests or rides in the open air, or stores his mind with a knowledge of the affairs of his own and other countries from the columns of his daily paper.

Select a Hill-side.—If his business is in the crowded city, with its dust and smoke and foul air, let him early select on the nearest shady hillside or by lake or sea just acres enough for a summer home, with shaded walks, shrubs and flowers and a garden of fresh vegetables and fruit, where his family may spend the hot months of summer, and to which he may flee as the evening approaches each day, and spend the night and early morning with them.

Serene Old Age.—And when old age has so far advanced that he can no longer give personal attention to business he can find no better earthly paradise than this.

Stick to the Farm.—If his business has been that of farming and he is, of course, accustomed to country air, physical labor, and the mental vigilance necessary to make his business successful, when he begins to feel the weariness of old age, let him not commit the very common mistake of surrendering all his land and taking a residence in a crowded city or a densely populated village, thereby making a total change both in habits of life and surroundings.

Take a Smaller House and Acres.—Better far for such to change from their broad acres only to a suitable residence to which is attached just land enough to support a cow, a horse, pig and chickens, with a good vegetable and fruit garden.

Fresh Air, Light Labor.—Here they would have fresh country air and merely enough of the labor to which they have been accustomed to prevent time from hanging heavily on their hands, and still to afford them abundance of leisure time for reading and acts of benevolence, together with social and religious duties.


Disappointment in Store.—One more lesson attested by abundant observation. It is that men in actual old age who contract marriage with young or middle-aged women, expecting thereby to render their remaining years more cheerful and happy, are very generally disappointed.

Divorce in Sight.—For in a very large majority of such cases either a divorce court is resorted to in a few months or the men die early from efforts to perform all the social and family duties of early adult age.

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Last Modified: Monday, 13-May-2013 15:31:47 EDT