A Description of the Colored Anatomical Charts Composing the Manikin Accompanying this Work.



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This exquisitely beautiful and artistic Anatomical Plate presents the head and face of a young man in the enjoyment of perfect health. Apart from the subject it so accurately and faithfully represents, it is in itself a valuable life-like portraiture of the human head and face, and shows to what perfection the art of anatomical plate printing has attained. Note the prominent perceptive faculties, the high forehead, features characteristic of a large brain and a massive and unimpaired intellect. Mark the open expression of the eye; how true to nature and life-like. Observe the compressed lips, denoting firmness of character and determination of purpose. Look attentively at the bright, open, manly countenance; there are no signs of mental decrepitude, physical bodily infirmities, nervous fear, or exhaustion of brain power or life-force in the expression of the noble, ruddy and healthy face. It is, as its name implies, typical of Perfect Health!

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Muscles of the Face and Neck.—This fine plate is a remarkably realistic and accurate representation of the head and neck, after the outer skin has been removed. It shows the bare skull, together with the admirable and skilful arrangement of the muscles of the face and neck; also the external part of the ear. There are, also, numerous blood-vessels noticed meandering over the parts exposed to view, by means of which this muscular area receives its supply of nutrient blood. The large, broad muscle observed over the forehead is the one by which we elevate the brow, and in conjunction with the orbicular muscle that is seen surrounding the eye, we can contract the brow, as in "scowling."

Muscles of the Face.—The muscles of the face are those employed to give variety of expression to the countenance. It is through the medium of these small but useful muscles that public speakers can give facial emphasis to their flow of rhetorical eloquence; the tragedian employs them to give dramatic effect to the various characters he impersonates, and the low comedian and "clown" cultivate them for facial contortion and "guying" characterization. The numerous muscles observed about the neck are those which give elasticity and mobility to the head. It is by means of these muscles that the head can rotate on its axis, bend forward, backward, sidewise, and pose in the diversified attitudes and various positions it can be made to assume.


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What the Plate Shows.—As we progress in our anatomical course of study, our attention is firmly and deeply fixed in wonder and amazement at the marvelous mechanism revealed in the sublime profundity and grandeur brought out in this magnificent artistic plate. It brings before our astonished vision the beautiful proportions and symmetry of the human brain as it lays in situ within its bony castle; and as we look upon its wavy convolutions we naturally turn our thoughts to the hidden mysteries of mind and to its superiority over matter, and to the illimitable intellectual properties, powers and capacity of the mind, that lay quietly slumbering in the depths of the human brain, for the mind of man surpasseth all things of human conception or construction. Below this mighty throne of reason and intelligence, on the left, we observe the cerebellum or lesser brain, the fount from whence all the vegetative or organic functions of life—as respiration, beating of the heart, digestion, etc.—receive their inspiration and supply of vital force.

View of the Eye.—We can likewise view the human eye as it lays in position in its bony socket, and wonder at our Creator's munificence and benevolence in providing us with such a delicate instrument of vision with which to light our way about in the world, and view the magnificent beauties of nature that surround us on every hand. Here, too, we observe the teeth, those essential pre-requisites to personal beauty, and valuable adjuncts to the powers of articulation and speech, protruding through the gums; their roots being visible above and below the gums; and in the lower set we see the dental nerve distributing its nervous supply to their individual and collective roots.

The Neck Muscles.—This beautiful illustration brings out in bold relief the superficial and deep muscles of the neck, and, at the same time, we observe a faithful delineation, not only of the relative position of the carotid artery and jugular vein, but also of the manner in which the muscular and fleshy part of the neck receives its nervous supply.


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Brain Cavity.—Here in this remarkable illustration we have presented to us one of the most wonderful views in the anatomy of the skull, or, in fact, of any part of the human frame. It is a view of the floor of the cranial cavity on which that curious and mysterious, but sublime organ, the brain, rests. The marvelous skill and ingenuity therein displayed, of the complex mechanism surveyed, the beautiful and intricate manner in which the nerves of special sense are so elaborately set forth, the complicated profusion and exquisite design manifest in the distribution of blood-vessels for the nourishment and support of the special organ of reason and intelligence—all claim our closest and undivided attention, and we are unconsciously led to revere the Omniscience of Him who could conceive of such intricate architecture, and perform such delicate, unique and perfect workmanship. The large opening observed in the floor of the cranial cavity is the foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord, together with the cerebro-spinal nerves, escape.


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The Brain in its Bony Citadel.—The artist, with true anatomical instinct and a rare technical ability in regard to accuracy and minute detail, has performed his part of the work in this illustration with such faithful fidelity to nature that one cannot withhold a word of praise at the grand style and elaborate manner of its execution. This elegant and artistic anatomical plate represents the brain held firmly in position within its strong bony citadel, but cleft in twain from above downward, thus showing its internal mechanism and construction; besides which it gives the internal arrangements of the nose, tongue, throat and neck.

Order of Brain Mechanism.—Commencing from above and descending downward we observe the following important structures, to wit: The fascia or skin covering the cranial bones; and then a section of the bones themselves, showing their laminated structures. Between the bones of the skull and the brain are seen the meningeal coats of the brain, which serve the double purpose of supplying it with blood-vessels and protecting that delicate organ from pressure or injury.

Cerebrum and Cerebellum.—We observe that the cerebrum, the seat of mind and volition, is much larger than the cerebellum or little brain, and as though that was not enough area for the evolution of the mind, we see this part of the brain most curiously wrinkled and folded into various sized convolutions, thus increasing the mental surface. The more numerous these convolutions are, the higher and more noble the mental faculties and intellectual powers become. The hemisphere of the brain, here shown, is seen to be divided into three lobes, the frontal, middle and posterior. The Corpus Callosum, or the great commissure of the brain, is most faithfully represented, and immediately below is seen the Fornix. The peculiar appearance of the cerebellum or little brain presents a tree-like resemblance, whence it is called the arbor vitae, or the tree of life.

The Olfactory Nerve.—The olfactory nerve is graphically displayed, branches of which are seen passing in all directions over the mucous membrane of the nose. A little to the left of the olfactory nerve is seen the posterior nares, and immediately below the pharynx and epiglottis, the oesophagus or gullet, the larynx and trachea or wind-pipe.

The Tongue.—The tongue, or organ of taste and instrument of speech, is most accurately represented, the muscular fibres of which are seen running in different but determinate ways, thus giving to this important organ variety and regularity of motion and aiding it to assume numerous shapes and forms. The cervical portion of the spinal column is seen, with the fleshy part of the back of the neck attached. This plate is one that commends itself to our deep and careful study.


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Shape of Brain.—As so graphically delineated in this beautiful as well as natural illustration of the human brain, we glean a knowledge of the origin and source of its blood supply; the arteries are observed to distribute numerous branches in various directions along and over its surface, many of which penetrate its substance. As noticed, the brain presents an ovoid or egg-shaped appearance, divided into two equal, lateral halves—hemispheres as they are called—thus virtually giving us two brains, the same as we have two eyes, two arms and two legs. With this surplus of brains, as it were, at our command, we are naturally led to ask the question, who can define the metes and bounds of the mind? Or describe the limits of our intellectual capacity? Who can fathom the depths of thought? Or circumscribe our mental, educational or scientifical acquirements, when health crowns the human temple with its rubicund mantle? Echo answers who!

Beauty of the Brain Views.—Every view of the human brain we have seen in this series of magnificent and unparalleled anatomical plates has inspired our admiration and held us spell-bound in utter astonishment and amazement at the limitless attributes, the diversified powers, and the variety of functions this wondrous and mysterious organ is called upon to perform in the hourly transactions and business pursuits of daily human life. And yet, notwithstanding the marvelous properties of this elaborate organ, it is the least solid and most unsubstantial looking body of the human casket.

Consistency of the Brain.—It consists of eighty per cent. of water, seven per cent. of albumen, some phosphorized fat and a few other minor substances. Such is the composition of the mighty and powerful organ which rules the world. Whilst the brain is the seat of sensation, yet it can be cut, burned or electrified without causing pain in itself. Strange, passing strange, are the properties and powers of the brain!


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Bones of the Skull.—This illustration gives an accurate and faithfu1 representation of the head, face and neck, surrounded by an outline of the fleshy parts as they appear in the human frame. The bones of the head, eight in number, constitute the skull, and those of the face, fourteen in number, compose a strong, hard, bony case, which encloses and affords a suitable protection for the brain and the four organs of special sense, viz.: sight, smell, taste and hearing. All of these bones are immovable, except the lower jaw, which moves by means of a hinge-joint, and permits of the opening and closing of the mouth.

Bones Seen in the Plate.—The bones of the skull observed in this beautiful plate are: the frontal, which forms the forehead or front part of the skull; the parietal, constituting a portion of the side and top of the head; the occipital, forming the lower and back part of the skull, and the temporal, which forms the lower part of the side and a part of the base of the cranium. These several bones are joined together by notched seams, after the manner carpenters call " dove-tailing."

Shape of the Skull.—The skull, as will be seen, is oval, which adapts it to the conformation of the brain, besides giving it greater resistance to pressure. The stronger and smaller end is in front, where danger is greatest to the brain, whilst the projections before and behind shield its less protected parts. The peculiar conformation and shape of the skull forms a strong shelter for the brain—an organ so de1icate that if not so strongly guarded from injury, an ordinary blow falling upon it would destroy it forever.

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Last Modified: Monday, 13-May-2013 15:31:46 EDT